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What to do for bruising after a fall

Sep 28, 2020

Elderly person with bruised knee

Falls can be quite common in people aged 65 and over[1] and, while they often don’t result in serious injury, you may experience quite a few bumps and bruises after an incident like this.

When you bang into something or fall over, the blood vessels under the skin can burst, causing the blood to leak into the tissue and creating the appearance of a dark blemish on the skin. You may also experience swelling and pain. Here are some things you can do after a fall to prevent a bruise from developing.


How to reduce bruising

In order to reduce the appearance of bruising, it’s important to try to limit the under-skin bleeding as soon as you’ve fallen or banged yourself. By acting quickly and restricting the bleeding, the size and intensity of the bruise could be reduced. To do this, there are a few different methods you could try.

1. An ice pack

If possible, apply an ice pack or other cold item, such as a bag of frozen peas, to the area as soon after the incident as you can. To prevent ice burn, you may find it’s better to wrap the frozen item in a tea towel before placing it on the affected area. Alternatively, put the ice pack on over your clothes.

By applying something cold to the injury, the blood vessels in that area cool down and restrict the amount of blood leaking into the surrounding tissue. This can reduce swelling as well as the appearance of the bruise.

You should apply the frozen item for 10 minutes at a time then remove it for 20 minutes. Repeat as necessary.

2. Compression

When you apply pressure to an injured area, you’re preventing the blood vessels from leaking as much blood and you’re also squeezing the damaged tissue to prevent more blood from getting in.

To compress the bruise, you should wrap the area in an elastic bandage that has some resistance. This will also help to reduce the pain and swelling[2].

3. Elevation and rest

The more you move around, the faster your heart pumps and the quicker your blood circulates. In turn, this can make bruises worse. After a fall or injury, it’s good to have a bit of a rest and assess the damage. Avoid massaging the area as this could damage the blood vessels further, causing a larger bruise.

While you’re resting, elevate the affected area so that it’s above your heart. For example, if you’ve hurt your leg at home, you could sit on the sofa and put your foot on a surface that's higher than the sofa. This could be a dining chair or even a footstool that has a couple of cushions on it to increase its height. When your leg or arm is at a slant like this, gravity will pull the blood away from the bruised area and back to your heart more easily.

For best results, it may be a good idea to combine this technique with the first method, elevating the limb and placing an ice pack on it as well.

4. A heat pack

If you want to improve the appearance of a bruise a few days after an injury, there are some things you can try to heal the area more quickly, such as a heat pack. The warmth can expand the blood vessels and improve the circulation in the area. This will help to clear away the blood that is trapped in the tissue.

Place a heat pad or hot water bottle on the bruise for as long as you think necessary. Alternatively, a hot bath will work as well.

5. Arnica

Arnica is a herb that grows in central Europe as well as parts of North America. Research has proven that it can reduce pain, swelling and bruising and it has been used for these purposes for hundreds of years.

Now, instead of making a batch of this remedy yourself, arnica comes in various creams and gels that can be applied a few times a day to a bruised area to reduce its size and make it lighter in colour.


How long do bruises last?

Bruises will generally disappear after a couple of weeks. You may notice a change in colour from a deep purple to blue and then to green or yellow. This is a sign that the area is healing and the bruise should fade altogether. 


How do you know when a bruise is serious?

If the bruise is still there after two weeks, you should consult your doctor for advice or examination of the area.

The NHS advises that you should also see your doctor if bruises are appearing for no reason. They are generally caused by injury, but if you haven’t banged yourself, they could be a sign of a vitamin deficiency or diabetes. They can also be a side effect of some medications, such as blood thinners or even aspirin and ibuprofen.

If you find that you’re falling frequently at home and are afraid of injuring yourself when no one is home, you may benefit from having a safe personal alarm. These personal alarms for the elderly can be used to call for assistance if you have an accident at home. The response team is available 24 hours a day so you can get help whenever you need it. Safety alarms for the elderly come in a variety of forms, including pendants and bracelets, and may put your mind at rest if you find that you’re falling frequently in the house.






#Healthy ageing

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